Welsh - Lesson 1 - Mutations

 

Other languages

 

Letter

Llythyren

Soft

Meddal

Nasal

Trwynol

Spirante

Llaes

P

T

C

B

D

G

MH

NH

NGH

PH

TH

CH

B

D

G

F

DD

-

M

N

NG

LL

M

RH

L

F

R

 

Treiglad meddal. Soft mutation occurs:

 

- in the female names, after y, yr, `r, or un:

cath / y gath, un gath ; merch / y ferch, un ferch

 

- at the beginning of all the names, after dau and dwy

 

- at the beginning of the adjectives following a singular feminine noun:

cath + tew / cath dew

 

- at the beginning of the verbs that start a question:

taloch chi / daloch chi ?

 

- at the beginning of the verbs (expect those starting with P, T or C) that start a sentence in the negative:

bwytais i / fwytais i ddim

 

- at the beginning of the names or adjectives after the particle yn:

tew / mae Ffred yn dew

There are no mutations in the verbs:

mae Ffred yn mynd

 

- after the possessives dy (yours) and ei (his):

pen / dy ben di ; car / ei gar e

 

- at the beginning of the names that are direct complements of the verb in its short form:

rhaglan / gwelais i raglan

 

- after the prepositions am, ar, at, dan, dros, drwy, heb, hyd, gan, wrth, i, o:

Llanelli / dw i'n dod o Lanelli

 

Treiglad trwynol. Nasal mutation occurs:

 

- after the possessive fy (my):

car / fy nghar i

 

- after yn (preposition meaning in):

Caerdydd / yng Nghaerdydd

 

Treiglad llaes. Spirant mutation occurs:

 

- after a (and):

coffi / te a choffi

 

- after the possessive ei (her):

pen / ei phen hi

 

- at the beginning of the verbs beginning with P, T or C beginning a negative sentence:

talu / thalais i ddim

 

- after na (than):

coffi / mae te 'n well na choffi

 

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